Team India have won the ICC Cricket World Cup after 28 years, completing the highest ever run chase in a final.

India captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni and Gautam Gambhir pulled off an impressive run chase to beat Sri Lanka by six wickets in the ICC Cricket World Cup final in Mumbai.

The fourth-wicket pair ensured India did not panic in front of a capacity home crowd after the early loss of big guns Virender Sehwag and Sachin Tendulkar in pursuit of 274 for six.

The favourites prevailed with 10 balls to spare in today's showpiece between sub-Continental neighbours, both seeking their second World Cup, despite a wonderful 103 not out from Sri Lanka's Mahela Jayawardene.
The expectations of many were that this contest might be a tale of two champion players, at watershed moments in their record-breaking careers.

But there was no major impact for Sri Lanka's Muttiah Muralitharan on his last appearance for his country, or a 100th international hundred for India's Tendulkar in his home town.

Instead, with 97 for Gambhir and Jayawardene's third World Cup century, three other world-class performers took centre stage in a contest just shaded by India.

It was Dhoni (91no) who completed the job, after promoting himself to number five and producing his first half-century of the campaign in a telling stand of 106 with Gambhir and then an unbroken 54 with Yuvraj Singh.

He did it with crowd-delighting gusto too, smashing a six high over long-on off Nuwan Kulasekera for the winning runs.

After Lasith Malinga uprooted both India openers - Tendulkar's departure silenced the partisan majority - India's prospects of a successful chase appeared to be fading already under the Wankhede Stadium lights.
But first Gambhir, with nine fours from 122 balls, and then Dhoni's eight fours and two sixes from only 79 changed everything.

Sehwag was gone lbw for nought to only the second ball when he aimed across the line and missed.
There was to be no finest hour for Tendulkar either, and it seemed a crushing setback to Indian morale when he edged behind.

Gambhir and Virat Kohli responded with a partnership of 83, broken only by an outstanding return catch from Tillakaratne Dilshan, diving to his right to pluck out the one-handed chance.

Gambhir had two moments of fortune, Kulasekera unable to hold a tumbling catch at long-off in the first over of spin from Suraj Randiv with the left-hander on 30 - and then, 18 runs later, a scampered second run just made as Kumar Sangakkara marginally fumbled a throw from the deep.

Sangakkara could not quite gather either when there was barely a half-chance to stump Dhoni for a second-ball duck off Dilshan, and the India captain was to have another close call on 69 when Chamara Kapugedera threw down the stumps.

But his and Gambhir's efforts, with Yuvraj's late assistance after the number three had been bowled trying to carve off-side runs off Thisara Perera, met the challenge.

That might not have been so had Sri Lanka's batsmen begun the match a little less conservatively, after Sangakkara won the toss on a good pitch and Zaheer Khan kept the brakes on with a miserly new-ball spell of 5-3-6-1.
Jayawardene's was the key wicket almost from the moment he reached the crease, and certainly after India broke the first of his three half-century stands - with Sangakkara.

Sri Lanka's lynchpin established a near risk-free run-a-ball tempo and retained it throughout.

Zaheer's outstanding control in his opening spell, backed up by impressive fielding in the off-side ring, had put the early squeeze on Sri Lanka's previously prolific opening pair Dilshan and Upul Tharanga.

The left-hander succumbed to the first delivery of Zaheer's fourth over when a touch of movement away off the pitch took an outside edge and was very well-caught by Sehwag, away to his right at first slip.

Tharanga's two runs had eaten up 20 balls, and it was not until his 20th delivery that Zaheer conceded his first run.
The introduction of Harbhajan Singh soon did for Dilshan, unluckily bowled off glove and pad as he tried to sweep.
Jayawardene joined Sangakkara for a partnership of 62, ended when the captain went after a short ball from Yuvraj only to edge it behind.

Thilan Samaraweera helped Jayawardene put on another 57.
Yet once again, just when Sri Lanka were just starting to look well-placed, Samaraweera was lbw sweeping at Yuvraj.
Kapugedera poked a very good slower ball from the returning Zaheer straight to cover to go for only a single.
Two wickets had gone for three runs - a test of resolve and skill even for Jayawardene.

But he found another willing and able partner in Kulasekara, who helped to rotate the strike and keep wickets intact for the final powerplay push - in which Sri Lanka's best-of-the-tournament 63 runs were plundered.
Jayawardene completed a richly-deserved century with the last of his 13 fours over wide mid-off as even Zaheer started to suffer.

He perhaps deserved too to finish the day a winner. But India were narrowly the superior side, and eventually proved the point.

How To Format a Computer Using a Windows XP disc

The word Format can mean quite a few things in the world of computers. You could format text in a word document, have a different file format, or in this case, format the hard drive in your computer. Sometimes you need to format your computer to ultra clean your computer. It makes it faster, new looking and gets rid of errors and viruses.
Windows XP disc is bootable and really does everything for you. (Well nearly) This means that when you insert a Windows XP disc into your computer, it should start automatically.
However before you do format a computer you should backup your data. Some things to backup include: photos, my documents, favourites folder, emails, all contacts, passwords and more….Go and check out my backup list.
Next is to make sure you have a system disk that came with your computer for display drivers, LAN drivers, USB, audio etc. If you do not have this there is a program called Driver Robot which find your drivers for you after you have formatted…It is a lifesaver. Its a must have program and saves you a load of work. Even after it is has found your drivers it will alos keep them up to date later on.
If you do not want to spend money you will have to find your computers drivers on the internet and download them manually.Drivers are one of the most important tiny bits of software that will make your computer run like its meant to.
Ok, enough lecturing, lets move on to formatting Windows Xp.

How to Format a computer using a Windows XP disc

  1. First you must put your Windows XP CD in the drive.
  2. Then restart your computer.
  3. When it says press any key to boot from cd, Press any key on the keyboard. I use the space bar, easy to get to. (If you can do this Go to step 6)
  4. If it doesn’t ask you to  press any key to boot from cd then restart your computer again.
  5. Go into the BIOS settings of your PC, usually by pressing the F1, F2, F10, or maybe the delete key. If you are not sure watch the screen at startup and it will say “To enter setup press…….”. You have to be quick and press it. If you miss it restart again. Once you are in the bios you have to change the boot options. You have to make your cd rom the first boot option. Save and exit.
  6. A blue screen will appear and you are on your way..
format Winodws XP
  1. Press Enter to setup Windows XP now. See screenshot above.
  2. If there is a copy of Windows XP on your computer and you wish to overwrite it you will have to press the escape button when prompted. (screenshot below) Do not install Windows XP in another directory unless you know what you are doing. Just overwrite the previous version as you should have backed up your data anyway.
Format Windows XP cd
  1. You should now make the partition that had windows on it blue and press D to delete the partition. It will ask if you are sure. Press L to confirm. More details on deleting partitions.
  2. Then Press C to create another partition and Windows will estimate a size for you. If you wanted to partition your hard drive into two equal parts you would have to do some math’s and then type the appropriate number in. Otherwise just going with what Windows puts there will be the minimum partition size.
  3. Press Enter to confirm size.
  4. Then it will ask you which partition you want to install Windows on. The default is C: drive. Select this by making it blue and press enter.
  5. If there are no partitions it will create one for you.
  6. Then it will ask you to format quick, normal, in fat32 or NTFS. Fat32 suits older computers so I choose a quick format with NTFS. Quick or Slow is fine. If you had errors it is better to use a slow format which can also be known as a low level format.
  7. From now on you just Follow the prompts and let it go..
  8. The computer will restart and it will try to boot from cd again…Do not press anything on the keyboard.. Just let it go through the stages of setup. You only press the ANY KEY at the start to get it to boot to the Windows XP cd.
  9. Make sure you have your serial number ready to enter in. This can be found on your coa certificate which is a sticker usually put on the side of your computer.
  10. Do not remove the Windows XP CD until the computer has started up with a new desktop and icons.
Now the next process begins.. Installing your device drivers for your computer. 
  • Follow the instructions carefully. Once you have done this a few times, you will see how easy it is.
  • The only way to learn is to try it yourself.
  • Be very careful not to make mistakes as restarting this process over and over can corrupt your computer. If you do make a mistake, try pressing the escape button as it can sometimes take you back to the previous screen.
  • If you cannot proceed through the format process, maybe you did not delete the old partition??
  • If there is more than one partition on your hard drive you can just format the one that has the previous version of Windows on it. That way the data on the other partition will be safe.
  • After errors and viruses have been found on your computer, you should format a computer on on low level format , and not a quick format.
  • You can also go to the Microsoft website for more information. You can get all the information from this site, however it can be very confusing for most people, including me!!!

How to switch to a New Mobile Service Provider?

Mobile Number Portability is boon for the ones who hate their existing Mobile Service Provider but are not willing to switch to a better Mobile Service Provider so as to retain their existing mobile number. With Mobile Number Portability, any one can change his/her Mobile Operator without loosing the existing number i.e. you can switch to a other Mobile Operator while retaining your mobile number. 

Here is how you can do it :
  • Visit Mobile Service Provider Customer Care Center or any authorised dealer to request for porting of your mobile number. Fill in a Service Registration Form and pay the porting fees for processing.
  • Send SMS 'PORT' followed by your mobile number which is to be ported, to 1900. (Send SMS from mobile number which is to be ported)
  • Upon receipt of the SMS, your existing operator will send an SMS containing UPC (Unique Porting Code).
  • You will be issued a new SIM card by the new service provider.
  • Upon approval of the porting request, the new Mobile Service Provider will inform you the date and time of porting. You can change your SIM card at that date and time. In case you encounter any trouble, you need to contact the new Service Provider.

The Common Admission Test (CAT)

The Common Admission Test (CAT) is an all-India test conducted by the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) as an entrance test for the management programmes of its six business schools.
180,000 students compete for less than 1200 general seats in the IIM's which makes it even more selective than all the Ivy League Universities put together. Even with a top 1% score, a candidate must also cross the equally stringent hurdles of a group discussion and an individual interview.
The CAT is one of the world's most demanding entrance examinations for any graduate institute. The test taker is expected to excel in arithmetical problem solving, geometry, statistics, data interpretation, logical reasoning in solving complex puzzles, and English language skills. The test is held on the third Sunday of November for a duration of two hours (2.5 hours from 2006).
It is neither expected, nor possible, that all the questions be answered, so the CAT also tests the candidates' ability to prioritise under pressure: a quality necessary in the competitive environment of IIMs' courses.

Pattern of the test paper

CAT (as it is most commonly known across India) has evolved from a speed based simple test into a test which demands more proficiency in concepts and fundamentals rather than just speed.
Earlier CATs used to have 180 questions to be solved in 2 hours. The cutoff (minimum marks needed to get an interview call from the IIM) for such a paper was generally 20 each in the three sections (Mathematics + English + Data interpretation and Logic).
For the years 2001, 2002 and 2003 the paper consisted of 50 questions per section * 3 sections = 150 questions. The cutoffs were around 15 marks for individual sections and approximately 55 for whole paper.

CAT 2004

The first big surprise for CAT takers was in 2004, when the IIMs introduced the concept of differential marking for the first time. The paper had just 123 questions in three sections with the following distribution: (the decimal numbers are marks allocated to each question)
  • English - Total: 50 (10 * 0.5 + 5*2.0 + 35 * 1.0) Cutoff - approx 12
  • Mathematics - Total: 35 (15*2.0 + 20*1.0) Cutoff - approx 12
  • DI (Data Interpretation) and LR (Logical Reasoning) - Total: 38 (12*2.0 +26*1.0) Cutoff - approx 17
Overall 123 Questions : 10 of half marks + 32 of 2 marks and 81 of 1 mark each. The overall cutoff for the paper was nearly 51-52 marks.

CAT 2005

CAT 2005 was an even bigger surprise. There were just 90 questions - 30 in each section. Each section was further divided into two subsections:
  • Math
  • Section 1A -10Questions of 1 mark each
  • Section 1B - 20 Questions of 2 mark each
  • The final Cutoff for this section was nearly 11
  • English
  • Section 2A - 10 Questions of 1 mark each
  • Section 2B - 20 Questions of 2 mark each
  • The final Cutoff for this section was nearly 15
  • DI and LR
  • Section 3A - 10 Questions of 1 mark each
  • Section 3B - 20 Questions of 2 mark each
  • The final Cutoff for this section was nearly 10

CAT 2006

CAT 2006, which was conducted on November 19, was a 2.5-hour exam instead of the traditional 2-hour exam. It is speculated that this change was made by the CAT exam committee to decrease the level of predictability of the exam and to relieve the stress caused to students in a two-hour time limit.
CAT 2006 had 75 questions, 25 questions per section and 4 marks per question, making it a 300-mark paper. There was a penalty of 1 mark for a wrong answer. The paper also proved to be a break from the previous pattern in that it had 5 answer options instead of the usual 4. The English section was generally perceived as very difficult, whereas the quantitative aptitude section was relatively much easier than previous CATs as also in comparison to the other two sections.
CAT 2006 was also notable due to some printing errors that had crept into the question paper. The IIMs accepted the errors and formed a committee to look into the matter. The committee ruled that the wrong questions would be ignored. This leads one to a scenario where the different paper sets have a different number of "valid" questions. The difference will be made up by appropriately changing the denominator in the respective sets. For example, set 333 had 2 incorrect questions in quantitative ability. In this case a student scoring x/100 marks would now score (x/92)% marks. The idea of a re-test which was proposed by some quarters has been set aside by the authorities.
The results for CAT 2006 were declared on January 2nd 2007 among much confusion, as the server hosting the results was inaccessible for prolonged periods of time. Also, for the first time, the IIMs declared the actual key to the question paper along with the results.

Colleges accepting CAT scores

Many colleges in India, other than the IIMs, also accept the CAT scores for admission. Some of the more prominent ones are:
  • S.P.Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR), Mumbai
  • Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon
  • Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad (MICA), Ahmedabad
  • National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai
  • International Management Institute (IMI), New Delhi
  • T.A.Pai Management Institute (TAPMI), Manipal.
  • Fore School of Management (FSM), New Delhi
  • Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad
  • Institute of Management, Nirma University, Ahmedabad.
  • National Insurance Academy School of Management (NIASoM), Pune

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering(GATE)

Conducted by one of seven Indian Institutes of Technology in rotation, Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an annual exam for admission to M.Tech and M.S. programmers in most engineering institutes in India[citation needed]. It is regarded as a benchmark test for engineering graduates in India[citation needed]. This examination is coordinated by a committee, comprising of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and seven Indian Institutes of Technology on behalf of the National Coordinating Board - GATE, Department of Education, Government of India. The pattern and syllabus are usually based on a candidate's B.Tech. or BE syllabus. Minimum eligibility for appearing in this exam is usually a B.Tech, BE, B. Arch. or M.Sc. The exam is usually conducted on second Sunday of February.
Forms are usually available in late September till late October at prominent SBI Branches. The students can appear in GATE under different disciplines according to their M.Tech interests. The discipline specification is done while filling the forms. Apart from the basic engineering disciplines there are XE and XL papers which are general in nature.

The current format of the GATE exam paper pattern is:
  • Total of 150 marks, fully objective, with three sections
  • Group I: Question Numbers 1 to 20 (20 questions) will carry one mark each.
  • Group II: Question numbers 21 to 75 (55 questions) will carry two marks each. Out of this, Q.71 to Q.75 may be common data based questions.
  • Group III: Question Numbers 76 to 85 (10 questions) will carry two marks each.
Advantages of GATE Scores
PSU's like BARC, NPCIL, HAL etc. give importance to GATE scores for various job positions in their organizations.
Applying to various institutes
Usually IISc application dates are within 4-5 days of announcement of results. Most institutes do not specify their cutoffs for previous years. So there is a general confusion in terms of which institutes and which specializations to go for.But in the recent years IIT Kharagpur alone in specifying its last year cut-off mark
JEST : Another exam on lines of GATE
JEST stands for Joint Entrance Screening Test, it is the screening test for candidates who wish to do Ph. D. Programme in Physics (including Theoretical and Observational Astronomy, Astrophysics, Physics in Biology, Plasma Physics and Technology, Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science) / Mathematics / Theoretical Computer Science. JEST exam is usually held on February-March. Using the JEST results, considered institute will call a limited number of candidates for its further selection procedure depending on its requirements. Traveling allowance will be provided to candidates called for interviews. All selected candidates will receive Research Fellowship from the respective institutions (currently 17 in number).
External Links:

Gate Website
Wiki on Gate

Graduate Management Admission Test(GMAT)

The Graduate Management Admissions Test, better known by the acronym GMAT (pronounced G-mat), is a standardized test for determining aptitude to succeed academically in graduate business studies. The test is used as one of the selection criteria by most respected business schools globally, most commonly for admission into an MBA program.

The Graduate Management Admissions Test is one of many factors schools use when reviewing applications for admission; it is typically balanced with work experience, grades in previous schools, recommendation letters and other admissions criteria.
The fee to take the test is currently US$250, worldwide.
The Test

Scores are valid for five years from the date the test taker sits for the exam.

Analytical Writing Assessment
Quantitative and Verbal Sections
Changes to the Graduate Management Admissions Test
Required Scores
Most schools do not publish the median, average, or minimum acceptable score for the Analytical Writing Assessment section of the test.
Most schools do not publish a minimum score. Schools do generally publish the average and median score of their latest intake. While these should be used as a guide, applicants must remember that half of all successful applicants will have scored below the median mark.
At nearly all of the top business schools that are commonly listed in popular magazines and ranking services, the scores will average in the upper 600s. According to Fortune magazine, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, commonly regarded as one of the top business schools in the US, reports an average score of 714; INSEAD, a business school with a highly international student body, reports an average score of 706. Other, less prestigious schools, will have average scores that may be in the 500s or even less. It may be possible to overcome a low test score with impressive real world accomplishments, good undergraduate performance, contributing to the diversity of the student body, outstanding references, or a good essay.

Contact Details:
Prometric Testing (P) Ltd.
Senior Plaza 160-A, Gautam Nagar
Yusuf Sarai, Behind Indian Oil Building
New Delhi: 110 049.
Phone: 011- 26512114/26531442
Fax: 265229741
Graduate Management Admission Council
ATTN: GMAT School Coordinator
1600 Tysons Boulevard
Suite 1400, USA
McLean, Virginia 22102
1-866-706-0403 or +1-703-245-4368,

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOFEL)

The Test of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced "toe-full" or sometimes "toffle") evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand Standard American English at a college level. It is required for non-native applicants at many English-speaking colleges and universities. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then is deleted from the official database.

The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide. The test was first administered 1964 and has since been taken by nearly 20 million students.

Since its introduction in late 2005, the Internet-based test (iBT) has progressively replaced both the computer-based (CBT) and paper-based (PBT) tests. The iBT has been introduced in phases, with the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in 2006, with test centers added regularly.
The demand for test seats remains very high even after almost a year after the introduction of the test: Candidates have to wait for months since short-term test dates are fully booked. The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring mainly one of the basic language skills (although some tasks may require multiple skills) and focusing on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed in the iBT.
1. Reading
After each academic reading passage (out of 3–5), questions are posed about content, intent of the author, and ideas inferred from the passage. New types of questions in the iBT require paraphrasing, filling out tables, or completing summaries. Generally prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer, though a priori knowledge may help.
2. Listening
Questions refer to the content and intent of the phrases, as well as to the speakers' attitude and meaning, either in short conversations or in lectures.
3. Speaking
New to the iBT, this section contains questions relating to personal experiences or preferences, as well as tasks that also involve reading passages and listening to short conversations and lectures. Test takers are expected to convey information, explain ideas, and defend opinions clearly, coherently, and accurately.
4. Writing
One task requires test takers to defend a position relative to a specified general topic. In the other task, a reading passage and a lecture are presented, and test takers must answer a question relating the main points of both the passage and the lecture.

Contacting TOEFL

How do I contact TOEFL?
Phone: 1-609-771-7100
Fax: 1-610-290-8972
TTY: 1-609-771-7714
Mailing Address:
TOEFL Services
Educational Testing Services
P.O. Box 6151
Princeton, NJ 08541-6151 U.S.

Graduate Record Examination(GRE)

The GRE (Graduate Record Examination) is a standardised examination conducted by the ETS (Educational Testing Services), United States of America. GRE (Graduate Record Examination) measures the potential of a candidate which almost all the graduate schools and universities abroad demand for the purpose of admission in different streams like Graduate studies, Fellowships Programs and Research Programs etc. ETS representative in India is responsible for conducting the examinations.The GRE (Graduate Record Examination) scores happen to be one of the several parameters which the Graduate Schools or Universities look into, for assessing an applicant for study in the all the streams except Management. For management streams admission is done through GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test).

A high score in GRE (Graduate Record

Examination) alone does not guarantee admission to any of the graduate Schools or Universities abroad, but the test can be looked upon as the first major hurdle to be cleared in the process of getting admission in the Graduate school of choice.

GRE is administered worldwide in two separate sets by Educational Testing Services, United States.

GRE General Tests AND GRE Subject Tests

The GRE General Test measures critical thinking, analytical writing, verbal reasoning and quantitative reasoning skills that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are not related to any specific field of study.

The GRE Subject Tests gauge the undergraduate achievement in eight specific fields of study.
A candidate may take either GRE General Test or GRE Subject Test or both depending upon the courses and the Institute or University requirements.




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